Tools used for cutting are collectively known as cutting tools.
They are usually made of solid metal that is fixed over good quality
wood. Since these tools are used for cutting, special attention needs to
be paid to the sharpness of their blades. Cutting tools are needed to
cut numerous types of things like wood, metal, plastic etc. Today, the
cutting tools comprises a wide range of tools and because of their
versatility they have been able to earn a wide reputation and an
uninterrupted usage through out the world.
Importance of cutting tools
The cutting tools are essential in the field of metalworking as well as
woodworking. There are a wide variety of cutting tools used for
different purposes. Besides cutting, these tools are used for getting
rid of metals from the workpiece, for filing, for sawing etc. It is to
be noted that the materials used in the making of the cutting tool
should be harder and tougher than the material it cuts. In the process
of metal cutting, it is a known fact that a good amount of heat is
generated. Hence, it is a prerequisite for cutting tools to withstanding
the heat generated. Moreover, having a particular geometry, the cutting
edge of the cutting tool helps in making contact with the workpiece. The
importance of the cutting faces angle should therefore be never
Types of cutting tools
Some popular cutting tools include the following:
- Tool bits: Also known as single
point cutting tool, tool bits are widely used in metal lathes,
planers and shapers. A tool bit is a non-rotary cutting equipment.
To suit a specific machining or cutting operation, the cutting edge
of the tool bit is restructured and resharpened accordingly. A tool
holder holds the ground tool bit rigidly while it is cutting.
Nowadays, in most cutting applications, the materilas used in the
making of tool bits are high-speed steel (HSS) or sintered carbide.
Sometimes diamond, ceramics and carbide are used as well.
Some common tools and their functions are given
- Right hand tool bit: Also used for facing,
these tool bits cut from right to left.
- Left-hand tool bit: Cleans up right-end
end of wrap groove and cuts from left to right.
- Round nose tool bit: Used for smooth cut
and cuts either direction.
- Boring bar: Cuts flat or straight bottom
holes according to any diameter size.
- Cut off tool: Cuts up joint, butt and
- 60 Threading bit: Used for cutting thread
parts in metals.
- Square nose tool bit: Used for cutting
- Broach: Broaches are typically used
in metal working. The basic purpose of using a broach is to expand a
circular hole in to bigger shapes (non-circular) like square or
other . A broach is defined a string or series of increasingly
taller chisel points fixed on a piece of steel, or metal. Broaches
used on gears, pulleys, drive shafts are perfect for cutting splines
or square keyway. The tooth of the broach is so designed so that it
can cut steel, brass or other metal very easily. Some broaches fixed
on machines can be pulled or pushed through an existing hole.
- Countersink: A countersink is
a tapered hole that is drilled with a large or wide outer portion.
When placed in the hole, the head of the countersink screw , bolt is
allowed for sitting flush beneath or with the surrounding material's
In other words, countersinking means to bevel/enlarge the side of a
hole so that any given fixing can be pushed below the surface of
that hole. When the fixing has been put in, the countersink can then
be filled and sanded so that there is no visible signs of fixing and
the surface is flat. A countersink as a cutting tool can be used to
remove the burr left from a tapering, drilling or other machining
operation which lead to improvement of the product's finish and
removing any risky sharp edges. There are different options for
countersinks. In some cases the countersink takes the shape of a
cone and is known as cross-hole countersink cutter which is used as
deburring equipments. Countersink can be used in softer materials
for creating a countersunk hole for a screw. To create a heavy
chamber in a drilled hole's entry point, the fluted countersink
cutter is the best choice.
- Endmill: Endmill is a cutting
tool is used in different milling applications like tracer milling,
face milling, profile milling,plunging, etc. It is basically a shank
type milling cutter which is different from a drill bit in its
geometry, manufacture and application. A milling bit can generally
cut in all directions, whereas a drill bit can only cut in the axial
direction. There are different tool types and geometry in endmills
which depend on the material being milled and what task should be
Diagrammatic representation of different types of
- Diamond tool and diamond blade:
Diamond tools are a type of cutting tools comprising diamond
segments and used for cutting through a broad range of hard
materials, which is not possible using other cutting tools. Metals
that are powdered also constitute a part of the diamond tool
segments besides actual diamond pieces.
tools are primarily used for cutting a wide variety of construction
materials, which also include cured concrete, bricks, dense metals,
cinder blocks, asphalt, rebar, marble, granite, travertine,
porcelain, and many other types of materials which cannot be cut
with ordinary cutting tools. An important segment of diamond tool is
the diamond blade which is the circular saw blade for cutting hard
or abrasive materials. Diamond blades are essential in building,
repairing and remodeling processes in the construction industry.
There are different varieties of diamond tools like Diamond Dressing
Tools, PCD Cutting Tools, Diamond electroplated tools, SPDT Tools
etc. depending on the purpose. Diamond saw blades, diamond tipped
core bit, SPD tool insert, diamond tipped grinding cups, concave
blades, polishing pads, diamond wire, tuck pointers are some of the
associated tools employed in the process.
- Reamer: In metalworking, the
reamer, also known as a ream is used for expanding holes. Reamers
can be both used as a hand tool or can have a specialized drive,
which can be standard tape. Reamer as a hand tool has a square drive
and can be used in the same way as a wrench to turn a tap for the
cutting of screw threads. For covering a small range of sizes,
adjustable hand reamer is used whereas for little amplification,
straight reamer is the best option. Depending on the application,
there are different reamers like machine reamers, tapered reamers,
rose reamers , hand reamers, shell reamers etc.
We give below a list of some popular reamers:
This is a general purpose reamer used in a wide variety of
applications and materials and it is used in different styles
like Taper Shank, Straight Shank, and Stub Screw Machine.
||Taper pin reamers: These
are used for reaming holes so that standard taper pins can fit
properly. Best results are achieved if the hole is drilled a
smaller than the small diameter of the finished reamed hole.
Specially designed for Railroad Car building work, having a
special cutter allowing easy entry and fast cutting in badly
offset and burnt holes.
||Jig borer: These reamers are used in Die
Shops and in situations wherever close tolerances are to be
They are used by hand and have a tapered lead for easy entry.
These reamers are used by maintenance and many other
applications where the holes need to be reamed by hand.
||Taper pipe reamers: They
are used before tapping with a variety of different types of
|Stub screw machine:
They are designed to be used in screw machines and made in
variety of flute configurations. They fit standard size tool
||Dowel pin reamers: They are used for
reaming holes for dowel pins in the automotive industry as well
as mold shops and designed with a minus tolerance.