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Cutting Tools

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Types of Cutting Tools
Tools used for cutting are collectively known as cutting tools. They are usually made of solid metal that is fixed over good quality wood. Since these tools are used for cutting, special attention needs to be paid to the sharpness of their blades. Cutting tools are needed to cut numerous types of things like wood, metal, plastic etc. Today, the cutting tools comprises a wide range of tools and because of their versatility they have been able to earn a wide reputation and an uninterrupted usage through out the world.

Importance of cutting tools
The cutting tools are essential in the field of metalworking as well as woodworking. There are a wide variety of cutting tools used for different purposes. Besides cutting, these tools are used for getting rid of metals from the workpiece, for filing, for sawing etc. It is to be noted that the materials used in the making of the cutting tool should be harder and tougher than the material it cuts. In the process of metal cutting, it is a known fact that a good amount of heat is generated. Hence, it is a prerequisite for cutting tools to withstanding the heat generated. Moreover, having a particular geometry, the cutting edge of the cutting tool helps in making contact with the workpiece. The importance of the cutting face’s angle should therefore be never ignored.

Types of cutting tools
Some popular cutting tools include the following:
  • Tool bits: Also known as “single point cutting tool”, tool bits are widely used in metal lathes, planers and shapers. A tool bit is a non-rotary cutting equipment. To suit a specific machining or cutting operation, the cutting edge of the tool bit is restructured and resharpened accordingly. A tool holder holds the ground tool bit rigidly while it is cutting. Nowadays, in most cutting applications, the materilas used in the making of tool bits are high-speed steel (HSS) or sintered carbide. Sometimes diamond, ceramics and carbide are used as well.

    Some common tools and their functions are given below:
    • Right hand tool bit: Also used for facing, these tool bits cut from right to left.

    • Left-hand tool bit: Cleans up right-end end of wrap groove and cuts from left to right.

    • Round nose tool bit: Used for smooth cut and cuts either direction.

    • Boring bar: Cuts flat or straight bottom holes according to any diameter size.

    • Cut off tool: Cuts up joint, butt and ferrule materials.

    • 60 Threading bit: Used for cutting thread parts in metals.

    • Square nose tool bit: Used for cutting grooves.

  • Broach: Broaches are typically used in metal working. The basic purpose of using a broach is to expand a circular hole in to bigger shapes (non-circular) like square or other . A broach is defined a string or series of increasingly taller chisel points fixed on a piece of steel, or metal. Broaches used on gears, pulleys, drive shafts are perfect for cutting splines or square keyway. The tooth of the broach is so designed so that it can cut steel, brass or other metal very easily. Some broaches fixed on machines can be pulled or pushed through an existing hole.

  • Countersink: A countersink is a tapered hole that is drilled with a large or wide outer portion. When placed in the hole, the head of the countersink screw , bolt is allowed for sitting flush beneath or with the surrounding material's surface. In other words, countersinking means to bevel/enlarge the side of a hole so that any given fixing can be pushed below the surface of that hole. When the fixing has been put in, the countersink can then be filled and sanded so that there is no visible signs of fixing and the surface is flat. A countersink as a cutting tool can be used to remove the burr left from a tapering, drilling or other machining operation which lead to improvement of the product's finish and removing any risky sharp edges. There are different options for countersinks. In some cases the countersink takes the shape of a cone and is known as cross-hole countersink cutter which is used as deburring equipments. Countersink can be used in softer materials for creating a countersunk hole for a screw. To create a heavy chamber in a drilled hole's entry point, the fluted countersink cutter is the best choice.

  • Endmill: Endmill is a cutting tool is used in different milling applications like tracer milling, face milling, profile milling,plunging, etc. It is basically a shank type milling cutter which is different from a drill bit in its geometry, manufacture and application. A milling bit can generally cut in all directions, whereas a drill bit can only cut in the axial direction. There are different tool types and geometry in endmills which depend on the material being milled and what task should be performed.

    Diagrammatic representation of different types of endmills

  • Diamond tool and diamond blade: Diamond tools are a type of cutting tools comprising diamond segments and used for cutting through a broad range of hard materials, which is not possible using other cutting tools. Metals that are powdered also constitute a part of the diamond tool segments besides actual diamond pieces. Diamond tools are primarily used for cutting a wide variety of construction materials, which also include cured concrete, bricks, dense metals, cinder blocks, asphalt, rebar, marble, granite, travertine, porcelain, and many other types of materials which cannot be cut with ordinary cutting tools. An important segment of diamond tool is the diamond blade which is the circular saw blade for cutting hard or abrasive materials. Diamond blades are essential in building, repairing and remodeling processes in the construction industry. There are different varieties of diamond tools like Diamond Dressing Tools, PCD Cutting Tools, Diamond electroplated tools, SPDT Tools etc. depending on the purpose. Diamond saw blades, diamond tipped core bit, SPD tool insert, diamond tipped grinding cups, concave blades, polishing pads, diamond wire, tuck pointers are some of the associated tools employed in the process.

  • Reamer: In metalworking, the reamer, also known as a ream is used for expanding holes. Reamers can be both used as a hand tool or can have a specialized drive, which can be standard tape. Reamer as a hand tool has a square drive and can be used in the same way as a wrench to turn a tap for the cutting of screw threads. For covering a small range of sizes, adjustable hand reamer is used whereas for little amplification, straight reamer is the best option. Depending on the application, there are different reamers like machine reamers, tapered reamers, rose reamers , hand reamers, shell reamers etc.

    We give below a list of some popular reamers:
    Chucking Reamer: This is a general purpose reamer used in a wide variety of applications and materials and it is used in different styles like Taper Shank, Straight Shank, and Stub Screw Machine.

    Taper pin reamers: These are used for reaming holes so that standard taper pins can fit properly. Best results are achieved if the hole is drilled a smaller than the small diameter of the finished reamed hole.

    Car reamers: Specially designed for Railroad Car building work, having a special cutter allowing easy entry and fast cutting in badly offset and burnt holes.

    Jig borer: These reamers are used in Die Shops and in situations wherever close tolerances are to be held.

    Hand reamers: They are used by hand and have a tapered lead for easy entry. These reamers are used by maintenance and many other applications where the holes need to be reamed by hand.

    Taper pipe reamers: They are used before tapping with a variety of different types of pipe taps.

    Stub screw machine: They are designed to be used in screw machines and made in variety of flute configurations. They fit standard size tool holders.

    Dowel pin reamers: They are used for reaming holes for dowel pins in the automotive industry as well as mold shops and designed with a minus tolerance.

Drill Bit

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